Wildlife of Hautere/Solander Island

Hautere/Solander Island is a rugged, inhospitable lump of an island lying in the western approaches to Foveaux Strait. About 40 km south of Fiordland and 70 km north-west of Stewart Island, it is 1.6 km on its longest axis, with cliffs rising steeply to the 330 m summit. The only flat land is a 10 ha forested plateau east of the summit.

Hautere/Solander Island from the north-east, with Little Solander Island to the right. Image: Colin Miskelly, Te Papa

Hautere/Solander Island from the north-east, with Little Solander Island to the right. Image: Colin Miskelly, Te Papa

 

An adult Buller’s mollymawk roosting on the steep slopes of Solander Island, with Little Solander Island in the background. Image: Colin Miskelly, Te Papa

An adult Buller’s mollymawk roosting on the steep slopes of Solander Island, with Little Solander Island in the background. Image: Colin Miskelly, Te Papa

The island was an early focus for western commerce in New Zealand, with sealing gangs visiting from about 1803, and whalers seeking sperm whales offshore from about 1838. The sealers sought skins of the New Zealand fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri), which have since recovered from near extirpation and are abundant around the island’s coast. Occasional subantarctic fur seals (A. tropicalis) also visit, but the boulder-strewn bays and steep headlands do not provide suitable habitat for sea lions or elephant seals.

New Zealand fur seals in East Bay, Solander Island, May 2016. There are at least 186 seals visible in the image. Image: Colin Miskelly, Te Papa

New Zealand fur seals in East Bay, Solander Island, May 2016. There are at least 186 seals visible in the image. Image: Colin Miskelly, Te Papa

Subadult male subantarctic fur seal on Solander Island, May 2016. The nearest large population of this species to New Zealand is on Amsterdam Island, 3,500 km west of Perth, Western Australia. Image: Colin Miskelly, Te Papa

Subadult male subantarctic fur seal on Solander Island, May 2016. The nearest large population of this species to New Zealand is on Amsterdam Island (French subantarctic territory), 3,500 km west of Perth, Western Australia. Image: Colin Miskelly, Te Papa

Sealing gangs were probably responsible for the introduction of weka to Solander Island. The genetics and plumage colouration of the birds indicates that they were brought from Fiordland rather than Stewart Island, most likely from the important sealing grounds of Dusky Sound. Only brown morph birds are present, suggesting that the founding population was small (black morph birds are common on the few islands where weka still occur in western Fiordland).

Western weka, Solander Island, May 2016. Image: Colin Miskelly, Te Papa

Western weka, Solander Island, May 2016. Image: Colin Miskelly, Te Papa

Weka almost certainly had a profound impact on the birdlife of Solander Island. Burrowing petrels are scarce, and several landbird species likely to have present have never been recorded, including banded rail, snipe and fernbird. Sooty shearwaters still breed around the edge of the summit plateau, with four smaller petrel species (mottled petrel, fairy prion, broad-billed prion and common diving petrel) hanging on in low numbers in steep rocky sites that offer some protection from weka. We found remains of both prion species that had likely been killed and eaten by weka, and saw occasional broad-billed prions flying over the island. In contrast, I found banded rails present on nearby (weka-free) Little Solander Island in 1985, and we estimated 300,000 pairs of diving petrels to be breeding on the 4 ha island. Little Solander also has New Zealand’s southernmost gannet colony, and we counted 13 adults roosting there from the helicopter as we departed on 23 May 2016.

Little Solander Island viewed from Solander Island, with Buller’s mollymawks flying in the foreground. Image: Colin Miskelly, Te Papa

Little Solander Island viewed from Solander Island, with Buller’s mollymawks flying in the foreground. Image: Colin Miskelly, Te Papa

The most abundant and conspicuous birds on Solander Island are the Buller’s mollymawks, with at least 6,000 pairs breeding. Although the total population is smaller than on the Snares Islands (the only other breeding site for the southern subspecies), the birds occur at much higher densities on Solander, which is about a quarter the size. Despite having spent many months on the Snares Islands, I had never seen so many Buller’s mollymawks filling the sky as we saw on Solander Island whenever the gales eased. When the winds are too strong, rafts of mollymawks wait offshore rather than risking damaging their 2-metre wingspans landing in turbulent conditions.

Buller’s mollymawks breeding under Olearia forest near the summit of Solander Island. The large-leaved plant is punui (Stilbocarpa lyallii). Image: Colin Miskelly, Te Papa

Buller’s mollymawks breeding under Olearia forest near the summit of Solander Island. The large-leaved plant is punui (Stilbocarpa lyallii). Image: Colin Miskelly, Te Papa

A flock of Buller’s mollymawks approaching the north coast of Solander Island. Image: Colin Miskelly, Te Papa

A flock of Buller’s mollymawks approaching the north coast of Solander Island. Image: Colin Miskelly, Te Papa

Buller’s mollymawks breed in winter and were the focus of our visit, as we tracked foraging trips of adults caring for chicks. Most chicks were large enough to be left alone, but some found it tough going in the torrential rain. At least one pair was still incubating an egg when we departed, and a few pairs were still guarding young chicks.

A Buller’s mollymawk chick after a downpour, Solander Island, May 2016. Image: Colin Miskelly, Te Papa

A Buller’s mollymawk chick after a downpour, Solander Island, May 2016. Image: Colin Miskelly, Te Papa

The other winter-breeding seabird on the island is the Fiordland crested penguin, which returns to the island in late June or early July before laying in July or August. We saw only a single adult during our 10-27 May visit.

Fiordland crested penguin, Solander Island, May 2016. Image: Colin Miskelly, Te Papa

Fiordland crested penguin, Solander Island, May 2016. Image: Colin Miskelly, Te Papa

Southern black-backed gulls and red-billed gulls occurred in low numbers around the coast, and there were at least 40 white-fronted terns present. We also saw several variable oystercatchers (black morph) and a white-faced heron.

Red-crowned parakeet, Solander Island, May 2016. Image: Colin Miskelly, Te Papa

Red-crowned parakeet, Solander Island, May 2016. Image: Colin Miskelly, Te Papa

Apart from weka, the commonest native landbirds on the island were red-crowned parakeets, tomtits, bellbirds and silvereyes, plus there were a few grey warblers and fantails (pied morph only). We saw only male tomtits near the coast, but females predominated in the summit forest. Even more surprisingly, we recorded only male bellbirds during the entire trip, suggesting that females are scarce and secretive on the island. The two pipits seen were the first recorded on the island since 1933.

Summit forest (mainly Olearia lyallii), Solander Island. Image: Colin Miskelly, Te Papa

Summit forest (mainly Olearia lyallii), Solander Island. Image: Colin Miskelly, Te Papa

Female South Island tomtit, Solander Island, May 2016. Image: Colin Miskelly, Te Papa

Female South Island tomtit, Solander Island, May 2016. Image: Colin Miskelly, Te Papa

Dunnocks are the only common introduced bird on the island (apart from the ‘introduced native’ weka), plus we saw a few starlings, blackbirds and a greenfinch. Visiting seabirds, including those seen offshore, included southern royal albatross, northern giant petrel, Antarctic fulmar, Cape petrel, black shag, spotted shag and subantarctic skua.

Hautere/Solander Island is a Specially Protected Area within Fiordland National Park. The islands are managed by the Department of Conservation, who authorised our research visit.

Related blogs

Hautere/Solander Island – 1933 and 2016 – In the footsteps of Edgar Stead (Part 12)

Hautere/Solander Island, the capital of albatrossness

9 Responses

  1. Alison Barwick

    Thank you, Colin, for another fascinating and well written piece. interesting to learn about the introduced garden birds being on Solander.

    Reply
    • Colin Miskelly

      Thanks very much for your comments Marie-Louise, Stuart and Alison. I’m glad you found the blog of interest.

      Kind regards
      Colin

  2. Stuart Nicholson

    The Buller’s mollymawk photo reminds me of how I think it has been taken with added lighting – the shading on the “face” is not shadow! . . . but I like it like that 🙂

    Reply
  3. Marie-Louise Myburgh

    I thoroughly enjoy reading these fascinating and very informative blogs. ml

    Reply
  4. Grant Timlin

    Has there been any serious thought given to eradicating the weka Colin. ? Sounds like there would be some great gains if it were to happen.

    Reply
    • Colin Miskelly

      Hi Grant

      I am not aware of any serious thought being given to weka eradication on Hautere/Solander Island. While weka impact on many other species, they have few remaining strongholds themselves, so pros and cons would need to be considered carefully.

      Cheers
      Colin

  5. Denise B

    I’m curious as to why sealers would introduce weka. Were they a food source?

    Reply
    • Colin Miskelly

      Hi Denise

      Yes, weka were introduced as a food source. In most cases there are no records to clarify who introduced weka to various islands and why. Apart from Solander Island, the other island where they were unequivocally introduced by sealers was Macquarie Island (Australian subantarctic territory, south-west of New Zealand’s Campbell Island). Weka were introduced to Macquarie Island during the 1870s and were eradicated there in 1988.

      Cheers
      Colin

  6. Olwen Mason

    A great read.

    Reply

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